irrationality of the square root of two


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irrationality of the square root of two

نوشتهاز سوی super gravity در جمعه 16 مرداد 1394 - 18:00

Reductio ad Absurdum and the Square Root of Two
The original Pythagorean argument on the irrationality of the square root of 2 depended on a kind of argument called reductio ad absurdum,areduction to absurdity: we assume the truth of a statement, follow its consequences and come upon a contradiction, thereby establishing its falsity. To take a modern example, consider the aphorism by the great twentieth-century physicist, Niels Bohr: ‘The opposite of every great idea is another great idea.’ If the statement were true, its consequences might be at least a little perilous. For example, consider the opposite of the Golden Rule, or proscriptions against lying or ‘Thou shalt not kill.’ So let us consider whether Bohr's aphorism is itself a great idea. If so, then the converse statement, ‘The opposite of every great idea is not a great idea,' must also be true. Then we have reached a reductio ad absurdum.If the converse statement is false, the aphorism need not detain us long, since it stands self-confessed as not a great idea. We present a modern version of the proof of the irrationality of the square root of 2 using a reductio ad absurdum,and simple algebra rather than the exclusively geometrical proof discovered by the Pythagoreans. The style of argument, the mode of thinking, is at least as interesting as the conclusion: Consider a square in which the sides are 1 unit long (1 centimeter, 1 inch, 1 light-year, it does not matter). The diagonal line BC divides the square into two triangles, each containing a right angle. In such right triangles, the Pythagorean theorem holds: 12+12=x2. But 12+12=1+1=2, so x2=2and we write x = the square root of 2. We assume square root of 2 is a rational number: The square root of 2 = p/q, where p and q are integers, whole numbers. They can be as big as we like and can stand for any integers we like. We can certainly require
that they have no common factors. If we were to claim the square root of 2 = 14/10, for example, we would of course cancel out the factor 2 and write p = 7 and q =5, not p = 14, q = 10. Any common factor in numerator or denominator would be canceled out before we start. There are an infinite number of p’s and q’s we can choose. From the square root of 2 = p/q, by squaring both sides of the equation, we find that 2 = p2/q2,or, by multiplying both sides of the equation by q2,we find
( p2=2q2. (Equation 1

p2is then some number multiplied by 2. Therefore p2is an even number. But the square of any odd number is odd (12=1, 32=9, 52=25, 72=49, etc.). So p itself must be even, and we can write p = 2s, where s is some other integer. Substituting for p in Equation (1), we find
p2=(2s)2=4s2=2q2
Dividing both sides of the last equality by 2, we find q2=2S2
Therefore q2is also an even number, and, by the same argument as we just used for p, it follows that q is even too. But if p and q are both even, both divisible by 2, then they have not been reduced to their lowest common factor, contradicting one of our assumptions. Reductio ad absurdum.But which assumption? The argument cannot be telling us that reduction to common factors is forbidden, that 14/10 is permitted and 7/5 is not. So the initial assumption must be wrong; p and q cannot be whole numbers; and the square root of 2is irrational. In fact, the square root of 2 = 1.4142135
What a stunning and unexpected conclusion! How elegant the proof! But the Pythagoreans felt compelled to suppress this great discovery.source:cosmos,by carl sagan t
The laws of nature are so powerful that not even God can violate them
 
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Re: irrationality of the square root of two

نوشتهاز سوی bahmanlover در جمعه 23 مرداد 1394 - 21:01

smile124 smile015
 
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Re: irrationality of the square root of two

نوشتهاز سوی elahe79 در سه شنبه 10 شهريور 1394 - 16:49

That was interesting smile072 smile072
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